On This Day in Black History: October 1
Peter Salem, patriot and one of the heroes of the Battle of Bunker Hill, was born.
Spain ceded Louisiana to France by the third Treaty of San Ildefonso.
Abolitionists stormed the Syracuse, New York jail to free fugitive slave Jerry McHenry. The "Jerry Rescue" successfully challenged the ability of the federal government to enforce the Fugitive Slave Acts of 1850.
John Mercer Langston founded and organized the Law Department of Howard University, the first black law school in the United States.
Southern Rhodesia became a self-governing British colony.
The Pullman Company formally recognized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.
Astrophysicist George Carruthers was born.
U.S. control of Haitian customs and governmental revenue ended.
California's Supreme Court became the first state court to strike down a law banning interracial marriage.
The U.S. 1st Battalion, 24th Infantry Regiment, last of the all-black units, was deactivated.
The Lyttleton Constitution, establishing Nigeria as a federation of 3 regions—Eastern, Western, and Northern—went into effect.
Nigeria gained independence from Britain but remained a member of the Commonwealth.
French Cameroun and the Southern British Cameroons merged to become the Federal Republic of Cameroon, while Northern Cameroons became part of Nigeria.
Nigeria became a republic within the Commonwealth.
Liberian politician and international soccer player George Weah was born.
Muhammad Ali retained the world heavyweight boxing championship after defeating Joe Frazier in their third and arguably greatest fight, the "Thrilla in Manila."
Brazilian soccer great Pelé retired.
Nigeria adopted its constitution and Alhaji Shehu Shagari became president.
Colin Powell was appointed Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest military position in the U.S. Department of Defense.
Tutsi exiles based in Uganda, known as the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF), invaded Rwanda.
In Rwanda, the ruling Rwandan Patriotic Front won approximately 75% of the vote in the first multiparty legislative elections since independence from Belgium in 1962.

Today's Featured Page
Dr. George Carruthers
Dr. Carruthers is an astrophysicist of international renown. He was the principal inventor of the first moon-based observatory, the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph—a combination spectograph and camera, with an electron intensifier—used for the Apollo 16 mission to the moon in 1972. More...

Previously Featured Pages
Born in 1786, Moshoeshoe emerged as a militarist and diplomat, forging a nation out of the chaos created by Shaka's military campaigns. Considered one of Africa's greatest statesmen, Moshoeshoe merged the displaced with his own people into a unitary state with defined borders and one language. More...

Nanny of the Maroons
Nanny, or Granny Nanny as she was affectionately called, was a brilliant military strategist. She was equally adept at being a shrewd military tactician and the spiritual leader of the Windward Maroons, providing the group with military and religious stability. More...

Nehanda's dying words, "My bones will rise again," predicted the Second Chimurenga, which culminated in the independence of present-day Zimbabwe. More...

Dr. Patricia S. Cowings
Dr. Patricia S. Cowings is the Director of Pyschophysiological Research at NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett's Field, California. With a career spanning nearly three decades with NASA, Dr. Cowings was the first American woman selected to be an astronaut way back, as she states, "before Sally Ride's day and they didn't even have a uniform for me." More...

Dr. Meredith C. Gourdine
Born in 1929 in Newark, New Jersey, Meredith Gourdine was a physicist, pioneer researcher and inventor in the field of electrogasdynamics, a process dealing with the action of charged particles moving through a gas stream. More...

Onesimus' recollection of a traditional African medical practice saved numerous lives and sparked the introduction of smallpox inoculation in the United States. More...

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